Cost of sex

Figure S2. Experimental data do not support yearly variation in the cost of sex. Table S2. The sex ratio of diploid sexual lineages in the parental generation of experimental mesocosms.
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The cost of sex

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Evolution of sexual reproduction - Wikipedia

The evolution of sexual reproduction is an adaptive feature which is common to almost all multi-cellular organisms and also some single-cellular organisms with many being incapable of reproducing asexually. Prior to the advent of sexual reproduction , the adaptation process whereby genes would change from one generation to the next genetic mutation happened very slowly and randomly. Sex evolved as an extremely efficient mechanism for producing variation, and this had the major advantage of enabling organisms to adapt to changing environments. Sex did, however, come with a cost. In reproducing asexually, no time nor energy needs to be expended in choosing a mate. And if the environment has not changed, then there may be little reason for variation, as the organism may already be well adapted. Sex, however, has evolved as the most prolific means of species branching into the tree of life.
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Sexual Reproduction and the Evolution of Sex

Sex is considered as an evolutionary paradox, since its positive contribution to Darwinian fitness remains unverified for some species. Defenses against unpredictable threats parasites, fluctuating environment and deleterious mutations are indeed significantly improved by wider genetic variability and by positive epistasis gained by sexual reproduction. The corresponding evolutionary advantages, however, do not overcome universally the barrier of the two-fold cost for sharing half of one's offspring genome with another member of the population. Here we show that sexual reproduction emerges and is maintained even when its Darwinian fitness is twice as low as the fitness of asexuals. We also show that more than two sexes inheritance of genetic material from three or even more parents are always evolutionary unstable.
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The Evolution of Sex and its Consequences pp Cite as. Between and , sex presented three major problems for evolutionists to solve. First it was necessary to explain the widespread sexual differentiation of animals that extends beyond the primary requirements of reproduction.
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